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Indus Valley civilization (Important Questions)

  • John Marshall was the first scholar to use the term, ‘Indus Civilization’.
  • Dayaram Sahni first discover Harappa in 1921
  • RD Bannerjee Discovered Mohenjodaro in 1922
  • The Indus Valley Civilization was an ancient civilization thriving along the Indus River and the Ghaggar-Hakra River which is presently known as Pakistan and north-western India.
  • According to radio-carbon dating, it spread from the year 2500 – 1750 BC.
  • Port cities – Lothal, Sutkagendor, Allahdino, Balakot, Kuntasi.
  • The Indus-Valley people were well-acquainted with the use both of cotton and wool.

Social features:

  • First urbanization in India.
  • Town planning
  • Grid pattern
  • Drainage system
  • Equality in society

Major Cities

  • Mohenjodaro (Sind) is situated on the right bank of the Indus.
  • Chanhudaro lies on the left bank of the Indus about 130 km south of Mohenjodaro.
  • Kalibangan (Rajasthan) was on the banks of the river Ghaggar which dried up centuries ago.
  • Lothal is at the head of the Gulf of Cambay.
  • Banawali (Haryana) was situated on the banks of the now extinct Sarasvati
  • Surkotada (Gujarat) is at the head of the Rann of Kutch.
  • Dholavira (Gujarat) excavated is in the Kutch district

Important Pre-historic Excavations

  • From Mohenjodaro – Great Grainery, Pashupati Shiva Seal, Bronze statue of dancing girl
  • From Harappa – Graveyard
  • From Lothal – Rice Evidence, Dockyard, Fire altars
  • From Surkotada – Horse Seal

Economic Life:

  • Based on agriculture
  • Barter system was there, 16 was the unit of measurment
  • Harappan seal (made of steatite, had design on one side) and other material has been found at Mesopotamia

Religious Life:

  • Mother goddess – Matridevi or Shakti
  • Sex organ (Yoni) worship.
  • Pashupati Mahadeva – lord of Animals
  • Yogic position structure.
  • Nature worship.
  • Animal worship – Unicorn, ox.
  • Tree worship – Peepal.
  • Fire worship- Havan Kund.


  • The Script is pictographic, not deciphered

Some Important Question

Question Answer
What were the main characteristics of the Indus Valley Civilization? Town Planning and Drainage System.
To which age the Indus Valley Civilization belongs? Neolithic Age
Which metals were mostly used to make the tools and weapons of Harappan Civilization? Copper and bronze.
What are the main sources of our knowledge about the Indus Valley Civilization? Archaelogical excavations.
At which Harappan site traces of a horse have been found? Surkotda.
Which metal was not known to the Harappan people? Iron
What was the main occupation of the people of the Indus Valley Civilization? Trade.
In which culture the earliest evidence of silver in India is found? Harappan culture.
By which evidence the Indus Valley Civilization is known as pre-Aryan Civilization? Script.
At which places in Indus Valley Civilization rice husks have been found? Lothal and Rangpur.
At which place in Harappan Civilization a beared man in steatite has been found? Mohanjodaro.
Which town of Indus Valley Civilization was flooded and destroyed more than seven times? Mohanjodaro.
Which soil was used to make bricks in Indus Valley Civilization? Alluvial soil
In which civilization the cotton was cultivated first? Indus Valley Civilization.
From which place the Indus people used to import Amethyst’? Maharashtra.
At which place in Indus Valley Civilization the evidence of chess and a measuring scale have been found? Lothal.
Which town in Indus Valley Civilization had no citadel? Chanhudaro
Besides Chanhudaro which city of the Indus Valley Civilization was associated with bead-makers shops? Lothal.
Has any evidence of a worshiping place in Indus Valley Civilization been found or not? No evidence of any worshiping place has been found
Which town of the Indus Valley Civilization literally means “Mound of the dead?” Mohanjodaro.
With which countries Indus people had trade relations? Sumeria (Mesopotamia), Babylon, Egypt, etc.
In Harappa how many granaries have been found? Six granaries.
By whom and when Harappa was excavated? Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni, in 1921
Which was the most famous building in Harappa? The Granary.
In which harappan city the H-cemetry of alien people was found? Harappa.
Which was the most famous building in Mohanjodaro? The great bath room
Which was the biggest building in Mohanjodaro? The granary.
In which Harappan city a piece of the cotton fabric was found? Mohanjodaro.
In which Harappan City a bronze dancing girl was found? Mohanjodaro.
In which year and by whom the Harappan city Chanhudaro was excavated? In 1931, by M. G. Majumdar.
Where the Harappan city Chanhudaro was situated ? In Sindh now in Pakistan.
For what chanhudaro was famous? Bead making shop.
When and by whom the lothal was excavated? In 1957, by S. R. Rao and M. S. Vats.
In which of the Harappan city remains of a dockyard was found? Lothal.
In which of the Harappan city rice husks were found? Lothal and Rangpur.
In which of the Harappan city a measuring scale was found? Lothal.
On the bank of which river Kalibanga was situated? Ghagar.
In which Harappan city evidence of bangles was found? Kalibanga,
Which materials were used in making buildings in Harappan culture? Terracotta.
How many seals have been found in Harappa Civilization? 2000 approx.
To which age Harappan culture belongs? Bronze Age.
For which region in Harappan culture ‘Meluha’ was used? Indus Region,
In which civilization UR was used for a place? Mesopotamia.
For which region Dilman was used for a place? Island of Bahrain.
From which places silver was imported to Indus cities? Food-grains and cotton.
Silver were imported to Indus cities from which places? Afghanistan and Iran.
From which places copper was imported? South India and Baluchistan?
From which place Lapiz-Lazuli was imported? Badakhshan.
From where Turquoise was imported to Indus valley? From Iran.
How many Pictographs were found in Indus Valley Civilization? 250 to 400


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