- John Marshall was the first scholar to use the term, ‘Indus Civilization’.
- Dayaram Sahni first discover Harappa in 1921
- RD Bannerjee Discovered Mohenjodaro in 1922
- The Indus Valley Civilization was an ancient civilization thriving along the Indus River and the Ghaggar-Hakra River which is presently known as Pakistan and north-western India.
- According to radio-carbon dating, it spread from the year 2500 – 1750 BC.
- Port cities – Lothal, Sutkagendor, Allahdino, Balakot, Kuntasi.
- The Indus-Valley people were well-acquainted with the use both of cotton and wool.
- First urbanization in India.
- Town planning
- Grid pattern
- Drainage system
- Equality in society
- Mohenjodaro (Sind) is situated on the right bank of the Indus.
- Chanhudaro lies on the left bank of the Indus about 130 km south of Mohenjodaro.
- Kalibangan (Rajasthan) was on the banks of the river Ghaggar which dried up centuries ago.
- Lothal is at the head of the Gulf of Cambay.
- Banawali (Haryana) was situated on the banks of the now extinct Sarasvati
- Surkotada (Gujarat) is at the head of the Rann of Kutch.
- Dholavira (Gujarat) excavated is in the Kutch district
Important Pre-historic Excavations
- From Mohenjodaro – Great Grainery, Pashupati Shiva Seal, Bronze statue of dancing girl
- From Harappa – Graveyard
- From Lothal – Rice Evidence, Dockyard, Fire altars
- From Surkotada – Horse Seal
- Based on agriculture
- Barter system was there, 16 was the unit of measurment
- Harappan seal (made of steatite, had design on one side) and other material has been found at Mesopotamia
- Mother goddess – Matridevi or Shakti
- Sex organ (Yoni) worship.
- Pashupati Mahadeva – lord of Animals
- Yogic position structure.
- Nature worship.
- Animal worship – Unicorn, ox.
- Tree worship – Peepal.
- Fire worship- Havan Kund.
- The Script is pictographic, not deciphered
Some Important Question
|What were the main characteristics of the Indus Valley Civilization?||Town Planning and Drainage System.|
|To which age the Indus Valley Civilization belongs?||Neolithic Age|
|Which metals were mostly used to make the tools and weapons of Harappan Civilization?||Copper and bronze.|
|What are the main sources of our knowledge about the Indus Valley Civilization?||Archaelogical excavations.|
|At which Harappan site traces of a horse have been found?||Surkotda.|
|Which metal was not known to the Harappan people?||Iron|
|What was the main occupation of the people of the Indus Valley Civilization?||Trade.|
|In which culture the earliest evidence of silver in India is found?||Harappan culture.|
|By which evidence the Indus Valley Civilization is known as pre-Aryan Civilization?||Script.|
|At which places in Indus Valley Civilization rice husks have been found?||Lothal and Rangpur.|
|At which place in Harappan Civilization a beared man in steatite has been found?||Mohanjodaro.|
|Which town of Indus Valley Civilization was flooded and destroyed more than seven times?||Mohanjodaro.|
|Which soil was used to make bricks in Indus Valley Civilization?||Alluvial soil|
|In which civilization the cotton was cultivated first?||Indus Valley Civilization.|
|From which place the Indus people used to import Amethyst’?||Maharashtra.|
|At which place in Indus Valley Civilization the evidence of chess and a measuring scale have been found?||Lothal.|
|Which town in Indus Valley Civilization had no citadel?||Chanhudaro|
|Besides Chanhudaro which city of the Indus Valley Civilization was associated with bead-makers shops?||Lothal.|
|Has any evidence of a worshiping place in Indus Valley Civilization been found or not?||No evidence of any worshiping place has been found|
|Which town of the Indus Valley Civilization literally means “Mound of the dead?”||Mohanjodaro.|
|With which countries Indus people had trade relations?||Sumeria (Mesopotamia), Babylon, Egypt, etc.|
|In Harappa how many granaries have been found?||Six granaries.|
|By whom and when Harappa was excavated?||Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni, in 1921|
|Which was the most famous building in Harappa?||The Granary.|
|In which harappan city the H-cemetry of alien people was found?||Harappa.|
|Which was the most famous building in Mohanjodaro?||The great bath room|
|Which was the biggest building in Mohanjodaro?||The granary.|
|In which Harappan city a piece of the cotton fabric was found?||Mohanjodaro.|
|In which Harappan City a bronze dancing girl was found?||Mohanjodaro.|
|In which year and by whom the Harappan city Chanhudaro was excavated?||In 1931, by M. G. Majumdar.|
|Where the Harappan city Chanhudaro was situated ?||In Sindh now in Pakistan.|
|For what chanhudaro was famous?||Bead making shop.|
|When and by whom the lothal was excavated?||In 1957, by S. R. Rao and M. S. Vats.|
|In which of the Harappan city remains of a dockyard was found?||Lothal.|
|In which of the Harappan city rice husks were found?||Lothal and Rangpur.|
|In which of the Harappan city a measuring scale was found?||Lothal.|
|On the bank of which river Kalibanga was situated?||Ghagar.|
|In which Harappan city evidence of bangles was found?||Kalibanga,|
|Which materials were used in making buildings in Harappan culture?||Terracotta.|
|How many seals have been found in Harappa Civilization?||2000 approx.|
|To which age Harappan culture belongs?||Bronze Age.|
|For which region in Harappan culture ‘Meluha’ was used?||Indus Region,|
|In which civilization UR was used for a place?||Mesopotamia.|
|For which region Dilman was used for a place?||Island of Bahrain.|
|From which places silver was imported to Indus cities?||Food-grains and cotton.|
|Silver were imported to Indus cities from which places?||Afghanistan and Iran.|
|From which places copper was imported?||South India and Baluchistan?|
|From which place Lapiz-Lazuli was imported?||Badakhshan.|
|From where Turquoise was imported to Indus valley?||From Iran.|
|How many Pictographs were found in Indus Valley Civilization?||250 to 400|